I recently had to install Ubuntu Desktop on a laptop that had a problematic NVidia chipset: The system would always freeze in a very short amount of time - most likely due to a combination of overheating and/or bad drivers.
This article saved the day: https://itsfoss.com/fix-ubuntu-freezing/
I just changed the GRUB config for the initial start of installation and everything worked without a single glitch. Even post-install, I did not have to change the grub config
Essentially, appending `nomodeset` to the line containing `linux` bypassed the default video check (even though it was listed during setup). Getting to the initial grub config with selecting the "lite" version of the USB partition.